KEYNOTE LECTURE BY WILLY LENS Time Perspective as a Cognitive-Motivational Variable
In our conceptualization of psychological time, individual differences in present and future time perspective, result from motivational goal setting and have motivational consequences. Human beings learn to concretize their general needs and motives in more specific goals and subgoals. Such goals can be defined by their content and their temporal localization. People with a predominantly present-orientation or short future time perspective (FTP) formulate most of their goals, aspirations, and fears in the present or the near future. Others learn to formulate goals and behavioral plans or projects for the more distant future. These individuals do live in the present but also plan for the future. Although extended future time perspectives do enable the delay of immediate gratification for more important future achievements, future goals do not preclude or make less likely enjoyment in the present. Individual differences in the extension of FTP do have motivational consequences. The longer the FTP, the shorter the psychological distance between the present and future goals. As a consequence, the incentive value of future goals decreases less because of the temporal delay and it becomes easier to see the instrumental link between present actions and future consequences. The instrumental link between present and future goals enhances the motivation to pursue those goals. Based on our correlational and experimental work we will show that the instrumental motivation resulting from future goals – by definition extrinsic motivation – can be adaptive and of high quality. Motivation for the future does not reduce enjoyment and motivation in the present, but enhance it. One can indeed strive for the future and enjoy the present at the same time.
KEYNOTE LECTURE BY JENEFER HUSMAN Using the Future to Stay Motivated in the Present: Learning in Engineering
At the end of the 1990s, Future Time Perspective Researchers had established that post-secondary students were more likely to recover from failure, use deep learning strategies, and enjoy what they were studying if they were connected to the future and aware of the future utility of what they were learning. For the past ten years, Husman has worked to place these findings in the context of university engineering education. In the US, university students who major in engineering are reported to have the longest study hours, and despite high rewards for engineering graduates, half of the students will leave their program. Over the past eight years, Husman's research lab has conducted an extensive study of a large undergraduate engineering program in the US. In this presentation, Husman will describe her approach to conceptualizing Future Time Perspective research, and the successful application of this model to challenging learning environments.
KEYNOTE LECTURE BY MARK SAVICKAS Time Perspective and Careers
The subjective experience of time shapes one’s career. For this reason time perspective is the most distinctive characteristic in most theories of career development and decision making, whether referred to as future orientation, planfulness, involvement, or awareness. This presentation will first describe the role of temporal experience in career theory and then discuss its role in the practice of career education and counseling.
KEYNOTE LECTURE BY PHILIP ZIMBARDO The Enormous Silent Power of Time Perspective in our Lives and National Destinies
Zimbardo's presentation outlines the foundation on Time Perspective Theory, its methodological development of a valid, reliable index to assess individual TP profiles, known as the ZTPI, describes initial supporting research, includes recent global extension of these ideas into an international research team, and finally, highlights the new therapeutic application of these ideas into Time Therapy (with Richard and Rosemary Sword) that can cure PTSD.